## Jun 9, 2014

### C Programming #09: Operators - Logical

Following article will explain logical operators in C.

To understand the logical operators we need to understand binary operators used in mathematics. Binary numbers are 0 and 1, representing false and true respectively.

In C -
• Zero means false
• Non zero means true

## Logical AND

Logical AND results in true if both of its operands are true, otherwise false. Below is the all possible combination of A and B and their logical AND.

 A B A AND B 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1

In C '&&' is logical operator.

## Logical OR

Logical OR results in true if one or more of its operands are true

 A B A OR C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1

In C '||' is logical operator.

## Logical NOT

Logical NOT results in true if operand is false and will result in false if operand is true

 A Not A 0 1 1 0

In C '!' is NOT operator

## Program explaining logical operators

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
int i = 10;
int j = 1;
int z = 0;

printf("i AND j is %d\n", i && j);
printf("j AND z is %d\n", j && z);
printf("i AND z is %d\n", i && z);

printf("i OR j is %d\n", i || j);
printf("j OR z is %d\n", j || z);
printf("i OR z is %d\n", i || z);

printf("NOT of i is %d\n", !i);
printf("NOT of z is %d\n", !z);
printf("NOT NOT of i is %d\n", !!i);

return 0;
}


output of the above program is

i AND j is 1
j AND z is 0
i AND z is 0
i OR j is 1
j OR z is 1
i OR z is 1
NOT of i is 0
NOT of z is 1
NOT NOT of i is 1


NOTE :
• A && B
• A and B can be variables/constants/expression.
• Expression means combination of variables and constants using operands.
• But if A is false, we already know that A && B is false regardless of the value of B (see truth table of &&), Hence B is not evaluated at all.
• A || B
• If A is true, it is already know that A || B is always true regardless of the value of B  (see truth table of ||), Hence B is not evaluated at all.
• This concept is called short circuiting. Even though it helps in faster execution but at sometimes confusing and which will lead to lot of software bugs.